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Jun 182014

Transworld Paper No. 31

by Darina Peycheva, Jana Pötzschke, Theron Delano Hall and Hans Rattinger

This paper compares mass and elite perceptions of environmental issues in the United States, the European Union, and Turkey. It covers four topics related to the importance of the issue area, general attitudes, the role of individuals and in istitutions as well as policy instruments aiming to manage environmental problems.
Drawing on survey data from the last decade, there is no doubt that environmental problems are taken seriously in the US and Europe. However, personal concerns and environmental friendly attitudes can hardly be translated into concrete actions if these require financial contribution.
Americans, nevertheless, appear somewhat more likely to make personal expenses for the environment than Europeans. While in general the EU is perceived as not doing enough for environmental problems, it seems to be delivering more than the American stakeholders. Turning to
policy instruments, there is broad support for a wide range of actions which do not differ drastically among Europeans or Americans, the public or elites. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is a target policy aim and specific instruments are already under consideration.


Jun 112014

Transworld Paper No. 30

by Kristina Puzarina, Jana Pötzschke and Hans Rattinger

This paper provides a comparative analysis of mass and elite orientations towards human rights and democracy promotion in the United States, the European Union, and Turkey. In particular, it focuses on importance, general attitudes, relevant actors as well as policies and instruments within this political area. Survey data from 2000 to 2012 show that people on both sides of the Atlantic share similar views on what constitutes a good democracy. They equally highlight the value of its electoral institutions, social welfare and prospering economy, while uniformly denouncing the importance of civic military control and religious interpretation of the legislature. Contrarily, the role of the main stakeholder seems to be a somewhat conflicting arena for the transatlantic community. In the US, more people trust national governments rather than the UN to decide on human rights. At the same time Europeans see both the EU and the UN as playing an important role in assisting other nations. When it comes to democracy promotion, both Europeans and Americans highly approve election monitoring, initiatives for civil society development and, to certain degree, economic and political sanctions. Whereas military involvement stands out as the least supported initiative for these publics.